Definition of Transformer
The device gives the voltage by reducing or increasing it, without changing the given frequency and power. That device is called a Transformer.
Through the Transformer, the frequency and power of one circuit are transferred to another circuit by maintaining the same frequency and power.
What is the main purpose of a Transformer?
3 phase supply systems have more advantages than single phase supply systems. Therefore, generation, transmission and distribution of 3 Phase Supply System is done nowadays. To make this supply system more efficient, the Indian standards body has fixed a standard voltage for each stage.
Generation Voltage = 11 KV.
Transmission Voltage = 440 KV, 220 KV
Distribution Voltage = 132KV, 66KV, 33KV, 11KV
Utilization Voltage = 440 V or 230 V
If you understand this voltage limitation carefully, 11000 volts is generated, and the voltage directly reaching the customers is used by the customers. It is 3 phase 440 volts and single phase 230 volts.
It is understood from all this that only 11000 volts produced are reduced to 440 volts and 230 volts.
In this way, the AC supply system should not change its supply frequency and power while reducing the over-voltage or by increasing the over-voltage. The instrument required for this is a Transformer. Because of this, the main purpose of a Transformer is to increase or decrease the voltage.
What is the Working Principle of the Transformer?
The Transformer works according to the Self or Mutual Induction theory of Electro Magnetic Induction.
Meaning when a coil is held constant in a changing magnetic field. Those changing magnetic lines are then cut off due to the constant conductor of the Coil. And because of this, EMF is Genarated in a coil held constant according to the michael faraday theory of electromagnetic induction
Basic Structure of Transformer
The composition of Transformer mainly consists of two main parts of core and winding.
Core: It is made of English ‘L’ type, ‘E’ type, & ‘I’ type or Rectangular shape. These Stamping are made of silicon steel from 0.35 mm to 0.5 mm thick.
Many such stamping are insulated from each other and laminated core is made. Silicon steel is used to make the core. Because it reduces Hysteresis Loss. And making a laminated reduces the Eddy Current loss.
The primary and secondary winding is done by insulating from the core on the Transformer core mentioned above. The winding that is supplied is called primary winding.
The winding through which the supply is taken for the load is called secondary winding. Just as the windings are insulated from the core. Similarly, primary winding and secondary winding are also insulated among themselves.
How does the Transformer work?
When AC supply is given to the primary winding of the Transformer. Alternating magnetic lines are then formed around the primary winding. As the magnetic lines change, they are cut off from the stationary conductor.
And primary winding consists of Self Induced EMF Generating. The AC current flows through the primary winding, thus causing changing fluxes around the primary winding.
Primary fluxes flow through the core to reach secondary winding. Mutual Induced EMF is created in secondary winding by cutting action between the flux and the winding turns.
According to the second law of Faraday’s Electro Magnetic Induction, induced EMF produced is proportional to the winding turn. This means that the more turns in the winding, the more the cutting action, the more static EMF is produced.
When the secondary winding is connected to the load, the secondary circuit is completed and the current starts to flow through the winding. And thus the load is provided with electric power. This is how the Transformer works.