How are Plate Earthing and Pipe Earthing done? | How Do Plate Earthing and Pipe Earthing?
Earthing is very important in every electrical installation. But how is this Earthing done? In this article, we have explained closely.
There are 2 types of Earthing.
- Plate Earthing
- Pipe Earthing
In the name of this type of Earthing, we can understand that a Plate of metal is used in it. Copper metal for Plate Earthing or G.I. Plate is used.
To make a Plate Earthing, a 90 × 90 cm pit is dug deep up to 3 meters in the ground.
What should be the size of the Earthing Plate?
In that pit, 60 cm long × 60 cm wide and 3.15 mm thick copper Plate or 60 cm long × 60cm wide and 6.3 mm thickness G.I. Plate is used as a main electrode.
Two Pipes of diameter 19 mm and 12.7 mm are added to that Plate. A funnel is attached at the top end of the Pipe with a diameter of 19 mm. An open copper / G.I. for connection to the Earth electrode. The wire comes out of the ground via a 12.7 mm diameter Pipe.
A layer of sand, salt and coal of 15 cm each is laid around the electrode. Such layer is laid up to 90 cm.
After the rest of the pit is filled with black soil, usually after 2.5 meters, the Pipe with earth conductor gets out, where the connection of Earthing is to be done. The Pipe which has a funnel on the top end.
A 30cm × 30cm cement concrete tank is built around the ground around the Pipe, and is covered with a lid made of cast iron.
In this way Earthing is done by conveying the Plate to the main switch and from there to the earth conductor to the required location.
This type of Earthing is done in generating stations and sub stations.
A pit is made 70cm long, 70cm wide and 3.75 meters deep in the ground for Pipe Earthing. a G.I., 38mm in diameter and 2 meters long. The Pipe is used as the earth electrode in that pit.
The entire surface of that Pipe has 12mm holes. Which are made at a spacing of 7.5 cm. This means the electrode is fitted with a reducing socket with a diameter of 19mm and two such 12.7mm diameter G.I. Pipes are connected.
A funnel is attached at the top end of the 19mm diameter Pipe. The funnel is used to water the Earthing. An open conductor for the earth lead is connected to the earth electrode through a 12.7mm diameter Pipe.
The purpose is that the earth lid should not be damaged anywhere.
Earth is laid around every layer of electrode at an interval of 15-15cm with sandy, sand and coal layer by layer.
Meaning the pit above the electrode is covered with soil.
The earth conductor, which is lifted out of a Pipe of 12.7mm diameter, is carried forward 60 cm below the ground, to the place where Earthing is to be done.
A 30 × 30 cm cement concrete tank is built around the funnel. It is covered with a lid of cast iron.
This type of Pipe is used for wiring installation of Earthing low and medium voltage.
Why is salt and coal added to Earthing?
Salt and Coal are poured around the earth electrode. Because salt soaks the ground alkali. And coal makes the ground moisture ashes. Which increases the conductivity of the ground. The conductivity of the land will be high, only then the leakage current will easily go into the ground.
Why is water added to Earthing?
The ground dries up during the summer season. Due to which the conductivity of the ground is reduced. To increase the moisture in the ground, water is poured through the funnel into the Earthing. A cast iron lid is placed over the Earthing funnel so that the path of pouring water into the earring is not closed.